# State Management

Treex takes a "direct" approach to state management, i.e., state is updated in-place by the Module whenever it needs to. For example, this module will calculate the running average of its input:

class Average(tx.Module):
count: jnp.ndarray = tx.State.node()
total: jnp.ndarray = tx.State.node()

def __init__(self):
self.count = jnp.array(0)
self.total = jnp.array(0.0)

def __call__(self, x):
self.count += np.prod(x.shape)
self.total += jnp.sum(x)

return self.total / self.count

Treex Modules that require random state will often keep a rng key internally and update it in-place when needed:
class Dropout(tx.Module):
key: jnp.ndarray = tx.Rng.node()

def __init__(self, key: jnp.ndarray):
self.key = key
...

def __call__(self, x):
key, self.key = jax.random.split(self.key)
...

Finally Optimizer also performs inplace updates inside the update method, here is a sketch of how it works:

class Optimizer(tx.Module):
opt_state: Any = tx.OptState.node()

...
)
...

As you the the opt_state contains the Optax's optimizer state and is update inplace on every call to update.

## What is the catch?

State management is one of the most challenging things in JAX because of its functional nature, however here it seems effortless. What is the catch? As always there are trade-offs to consider:

• The Pytree approach requires the user to be aware that if a Module is stateful it should propagate its state by having mutated object be outputs of jitted functions, on the other hand implementation and usage if very simple.
• Frameworks like Flax and Haiku are more explicit as to when state is updated but introduce a lot of complexity to do so.

A standard solution to this problem is: always output the Module to update its state. For example, a typical loss function that contains a stateful model would look like this:

@partial(jax.value_and_grad, has_aux=True)
def loss_fn(params, model, x, y):
model = model.update(params)

preds = model(x)
loss = jnp.mean((preds - y) ** 2)

return loss, model

params = model.parameters()
(loss, model), grads = loss_fn(params, model, x, y)
...

Here model is returned along with the loss through value_and_grad to update model on the outside thus persisting any changes to the state performed on the inside.