Skip to content


Initialization is performed by calling the Module.init method, init returns a new Module with all fields initialized.

There are three initialization mechanisms for Modules in Treex:

  1. Using Module.initializing inside __call__.
  2. Using a field Initializer object.
  3. Defining the rng_init method.


During the forward pass you can check if the Module is initialized by calling self.initializing() and assign the fields that need to be initialized then and there. If you need access to a RNG key, you can use tx.next_key() inside a self.initializing() block ONLY, this will use the key passed during init.

def __call__(self, x: jnp.ndarray) -> jnp.ndarray:
    if self.initializing():
        self.w = jax.random.uniform(
            shape=[x.shape[-1], self.features_out]
The benefit of this approach is that you can leverage the shape of the input to initialize the parameters. This method is used by most core layers provided by Treex.

Field Initializer

Initializers contain a function that take a key and return an initial value, init will replace leaves with Initializer objects with the initial value their function outputs for the given key:

class MyModule(tx.Module):
    a: Union[tx.Initializer, jnp.ndarray] = tx.Parameter.node()

    def __init__(self):
        self.a = tx.Initializer(
            lambda key: jax.random.uniform(key, shape=(1,))

module = MyModule().init(42)  
# > MyModule(a=array([0.034...]))
This method is use for fields who's intialization doesn't require shape inference and doesn't depend on information of other fields.


If you Module doesn't require shape inference but Initializer is not enough, you can override the rng_init method.

class MyModule(tx.Module):
    a: Optional[jnp.ndarray] = tx.Parameter.node()
    b: Optional[jnp.ndarray] = tx.Parameter.node()

    def __init__(self):
        self.a = None 
        self.b = None

    def rng_init(self):
        self.a = jax.random.uniform(tx.next_key(), shape=(1,)))
        self.b = 10.0 * self.a + jax.random.normal(key, shape=(1,))

module = MyModule().init(42)
module # MyModule(a=array([0.3...]), b=array([3.2...]))

Intialization order

The order of initialization is:

  1. First all field Initializers are called.
  2. Second all rng_init methods are called.
  3. Lastly the __call__ method is called.